The Newport Tower

The Newport Tower
Medieval stone tower ... in Rhode Island. Does it look like any other Colonial structure you've seen? Recent carbon dating of the mortar indicates 1400s construction date (see post below).

The Westford Knight Sword

The Westford Knight Sword
Medieval Battle Sword ... in Westford, Massachusetts. Can anyone deny the pommel, hilt and blade punch-marked into the bedrock?

The Spirit Pond Rune Stone

The Spirit Pond Rune Stone
Medieval Inscription ... in Maine, near Popham Beach. Long passed off as a hoax, but how many people know the Runic language? And how is it that some of the Runic characters match rare runes on inscriptions found in Minnesota and Rhode Island? Carbon-dating of floorboards at nearby long house date to 1405.

The Narragansett Rune Stone

The Narragansett Rune Stone
Medieval Inscription ... in Rhode Island's Narragansett Bay. This Runic inscription is only visible for twenty minutes a day at low tide--is this also the work of a modern-day, Runic-speaking hoaxster?

The Westford Boat Stone

The Westford Boat Stone
Medieval Ship Carving ... in Westford, MA. Found near the Westford Knight site. Weathering patterns of carving are consistent with that of 600-year-old artifact. And why would a Colonial trail-marker depict a knorr, a 14th-century ship?

The Kensington Rune Stone

The Kensington Rune Stone
Medieval Inscription... in Minnesota. Forensic geology confirms the carvings predate European settlement of Minnesota--so did Runic-speaking Native Americans carve it?

The Hooked X Rune

The Hooked X Rune
Medieval Runic Character ... on inscriptions found in Maine, Minnesota and Rhode Island. But this rare rune was only recently found in Europe. This conclusively disproves any hoax theory while also linking these three artifacts together.

Monday, September 17, 2018

Columbus and the Templars

Was Columbus using old Templar maps when he crossed the Atlantic? At first blush, the navigator and the fighting monks seem like odd bedfellows. But once I began ferreting around in this dusty corner of history, I found some fascinating connections. Enough, in fact, to trigger the plot of my latest novel, The Swagger Sword.

To begin with, most history buffs know there are some obvious connections between Columbus and the Knights Templar. Most prominently, the sails on Columbus’ ships featured the unique splayed Templar cross known as the cross pattée (pictured here is the Santa Maria):

Additionally, in his later years Columbus featured a so-called “Hooked X” in his signature, a mark believed by researchers such as Scott Wolter to be a secret code used by remnants of the outlawed Templars (see two large X letters with barbs on upper right staves pictured below):

Other connections between Columbus and the Templars are less well-known. For example, Columbus grew up in Genoa, bordering the principality of Seborga, the location of the Templars’ original headquarters and the repository of many of the documents and maps brought by the Templars to Europe from the Middle East. Could Columbus have been privy to these maps? Later in life, Columbus married into a prominent Templar family. His father-in-law, Bartolomeu Perestrello (a nobleman and accomplished navigator in his own right), was a member of the Knights of Christ (the Portuguese successor order to the Templars). Perestrello was known to possess a rare and wide-ranging collection of maritime logs, maps and charts; it has been written that Columbus was given a key to Perestrello’s library as part of the marriage dowry. After marrying, Columbus moved to the remote Madeira Islands, where a fellow resident, John Drummond, had also married into the Perestrello family. Drummond was a grandson of Scottish explorer Prince Henry Sinclair, believed to have sailed to North America in 1398. It is, accordingly, likely that Columbus had access to extensive Templar maps and charts through his familial connections to both Perestrello and Drummond.
Another little-known incident in Columbus’ life sheds further light on the navigator’s possible ties to the Templars. In 1477, Columbus sailed to Galway, on the west coast of Ireland, from where the legendary Brendan the Navigator supposedly set sale in the 6th century on his journey to North America. While there, Columbus prayed at St. Nicholas’ Church, a structure built over an original Templar chapel dating back to around the year 1300. St. Nicholas’ Church has been compared by some historians to Scotland’s famous Roslyn Chapel, complete with Templar tomb, Apprentice Pillar, and hidden Templar crosses. (Recall that Roslyn Chapel was built by another grandson—not Drummond—of the aforementioned Prince Henry Sinclair.) According to his diary, Columbus also famously observed “Chinese” bodies floating into Galway harbor on driftwood, which may have been what first prompted him to turn his eyes westward. A granite monument along the Galway waterfront, topped by a dove (Columbus meaning ‘dove’ in Latin), commemorates this sighting, the marker reading: On these shores around 1477 the Genoese sailor Christoforo Colombo found sure signs of land beyond the Atlantic.

In fact, as the monument text hints, Columbus may have turned more than just his eyes westward. A growing body of evidence indicates he actually crossed the north Atlantic in 1477. Columbus wrote in a letter to his son: “In the year 1477, in the month of February, I navigated 100 leagues beyond Thule [to an] island which is as large as England. When I was there the sea was not frozen over, and the tide was so great as to rise and fall 26 braccias.” We will turn later to the mystery as to why any sailor would venture into the north Atlantic in February. First, let’s examine Columbus’ statement. Historically, ‘Thule’ is the name given to the westernmost edge of the known world. In 1477, that would have been the western settlements of Greenland (though abandoned by then, they were still known). A league is about three miles, so 100 leagues is approximately 300 miles. If we think of the word “beyond” as meaning “further than” rather than merely “from,” we then need to look for an island the size of England with massive tides (26 braccias equaling approximately 50 feet) located along a longitudinal line 300 miles west of the west coast of Greenland and far enough south so that the harbors were not frozen over. Nova Scotia, with its famous Bay of Fundy tides, matches the description almost perfectly. But, again, why would Columbus brave the north Atlantic in mid-winter? The answer comes from researcher Anne Molander, who in her book, The Horizons of Christopher Columbus, places Columbus in Nova Scotia on February 13, 1477. His motivation? To view and take measurements during a solar eclipse. Ms. Molander theorizes that the navigator, who was known to track celestial events such as eclipses, used the rare opportunity to view the eclipse elevation angle in order calculate the exact longitude of the eastern coastline of North America. Recall that, during this time period, trained navigators were adept at calculating latitude, but reliable methods for measuring longitude had not yet been invented. Columbus, apparently, was using the rare 1477 eclipse to gather date for future western exploration. Curiously, Ms. Molander places Columbus specifically in Nova Scotia’s Clark’s Bay, less than a day’s sail from the famous Oak Island, legendary repository of the Knights Templar missing treasure.

The Columbus-Templar connections detailed above were intriguing, but it wasn’t until I studied the names of the three ships which Columbus sailed to America that I became convinced the link was a reality. Before examining these ship names, let’s delve a bit deeper into some of the history referred to earlier in this analysis. I made a reference to Prince Henry Sinclair and his journey to North American in 1398. The Da Vinci Code made the Sinclair/St. Clair family famous by identifying it as the family most likely to be carrying the Jesus bloodline. As mentioned earlier, this is the same family which in the mid-1400s built Roslyn Chapel, an edifice some historians believe holds the key—through its elaborate and esoteric carvings and decorations—to locating the Holy Grail. Other historians believe the chapel houses (or housed) the hidden Knights Templar treasure. Whatever the case, the Sinclair/St. Clair family has a long and intimate historical connection to the Knights Templar. In fact, a growing number of researchers believe that the purpose of Prince Henry Sinclair’s 1398 expedition to North America was to hide the Templar treasure (whether it be a monetary treasure or something more esoteric such as religious artifacts or secret documents revealing the true teachings of the early Church). Researcher Scott Wolter, in studying the Hooked X mark found on many ancient artifacts in North American as well as on Columbus’ signature, makes a compelling argument that the Hooked X is in fact a secret symbol used by those who believed that Jesus and Mary Magdalene married and produced children. (See The Hooked X, by Scott F. Wolter.) These believers adhered to a version of Christianity which recognized the importance of the female in both society and in religion, putting them at odds with the patriarchal Church. In this belief, they had returned to the ancient pre-Old Testament ways, where the female form was worshiped and deified as the primary giver of life.

It is through the prism of this Jesus and Mary Magdalene marriage, and the Sinclair/St. Clair family connection to both the Jesus bloodline and Columbus, that we now, finally, turn to the names of Columbus’ three ships. Importantly, he renamed all three ships before his 1492 expedition. The largest vessel’s name, the Santa Maria, is the easiest to analyze: Saint Mary, the Virgin Mary, the mother of Jesus. The Pinta is more of a mystery. In Spanish, the word means ‘the painted one.’ During the time of Columbus, this was a name attributed to prostitutes, who “painted” their faces with makeup. Also during this period, the Church had marginalized Mary Magdalene by referring to her as ‘the prostitute,’ even though there is nothing in the New Testament identifying her as such. So the Pinta could very well be a reference to Mary Magdalene. Last is the Nina, Spanish for ‘the girl.’ Could this be the daughter of Mary Magdalene, the carrier of the Jesus bloodline? If so, it would complete the set of women in Jesus’ life—his mother, his wife, his daughter—and be a nod to those who opposed the patriarchy of the medieval Church. It was only when I researched further that I realized I was on the right track: The name of the Pinta before Columbus changed it was the Santa Clara, Portuguese for ‘Saint Clair.’

So, to put a bow on it, Columbus named his three ships after the Virgin Mary, Mary Magdalene, and the carrier of their bloodline, the St. Clair girl. These namings occurred during the height of the Inquisition, when one needed to be extremely careful about doing anything which could be interpreted as heretical. But even given the danger, I find it hard to chalk these names up to coincidence, especially in light of all the other Columbus connections to the Templars. Columbus was intent on paying homage to the Templars and their beliefs, and found a subtle way of renaming his ships to do so.

Given all this, I have to wonder: Was Columbus using Templar maps when he made his Atlantic crossing? Is this why he stayed south, because the maps showed no passage to the north? If so, and especially in light of his 1477 journey to an area so close to Oak Island, what services had Columbus provided the Templars in exchange for these priceless charts?

It is this research, and these questions, which triggered my novel, The Swagger Sword. If you appreciate a good historical mystery as much as I, I think you’ll enjoy the story.

Saturday, November 25, 2017

Newport Tower Research Updates

Developments in Newport Tower Research

There have been two recent developments I wanted to share. The first adds credence to the theory that the Newport Tower was NOT built as a Colonial windmill, and the second points to the builders as members of the 14th century Prince Henry Sinclair party.


Renowned anthropologist and researcher Dr. Gunnar Thompson recently passed away, but before he did he posted to his website ( ) a number of maps of the Narragansett Bay area which he had been researching. The first, a map dated 1569 by Gerhard Mercator, is shown here [cropped for clarity]:
The map clearly displays a European settlement at the northeastern end of Narragansett Bay, labeling the settlement “Norombega” and describing the settlement (not shown) as the capital city of the New World. Apparently, as of 1569, there was known to be a well-established European presence in the Newport area. (Newport is located on the eastern side of the bay, south of where the settlement is drawn.) Recall that the failed Roanoke colony was not established until 1585. And this 1569 also predates the Elizabethan-era expedition to Newport orchestrated by John Dee as proposed by researcher Jim Egan.

The conclusion that the Newport area had been settled in pre-Colonial times is further buttressed by a 1635 map drawn by William Wood, shown here:

Recall that Plymouth Colony was settled in 1620 by the Pilgrims. And note the label “New Plymouth” located east of Plymouth Harbor in Cape Cod Bay (you may need to zoom in). What is curious is that at the northeastern part of Narragansett Bay, where Mercator marked Norombega, there is a settlement labeled “Old Plymouth” on this map (again, zoom in). The first Colonial settlers did not arrive in Rhode Island until 1936, after this map was drawn, so this “Old Plymouth” cannot mark a Colonial settlement. Again, as we saw with the Mercator map, there seems to be a memory of some kind of ancient European settlement in the Narragansett Bay area.
Of course, these maps don’t prove that the Newport Tower is pre-Colonial. But they do show strong evidence of a pre-Colonial settlement in the Newport area. It is entirely possible that the Tower is part of that settlement.
Native American Oral History
So if the Tower predates the Colonists, who built it? Readers of my books know that I believe the leading candidate to have done so was Prince Henry Sinclair and his party in or around 1399. (Sinclair ruled Scottish lands near Edinburgh as wells as Norwegian lands in the Orkney Islands; his family also had a longstanding relationship with the outlawed Knights Templar.) In previous posts, and in my books and lectures, I have outlined the various reasons for this. But, until recently, I had never asked the one group of people who were actually here when I believe the Tower was built: The Native Americans.
In June of 2015, Pocasset Wampanoag Tribal Chief Daryl “Black Eagle” Jamieson joined a group of us at the Tower. When asked, Black Eagle replied that, according to what had been passed down to him by tribal elders, the Tower had been build by Henry Sinclair and the Knights Templar. He pointed out that whoever built the Tower must have had an alliance with the Native Americans in the area (ruling out the Colonists and also the Elizabethan-era British), else the Native Americans simply would have driven them off long before the Tower could have been completed. (A more complete excerpt of Black Eagle’s response is set forth below.)

My sincere thanks to Black Eagle for his candor and his willingness to help us solve the mystery of who built this amazing Tower.
Black Eagle comments June, 2015:
“The Narragansett history is that the people that built this Tower are people that came here with red hair... They were red-haired people building here and they were allowed to build here—allowed... To me, the only person that could have came here and gotten away with that is somebody that was brought here by another native tribe... They would have had to have had some kind of alliance... The only ones that I know that had that alliance were Henry Sinclair when he came and met with the Micmacs.* The Knights Templar. They were the only legitimate people that could have come here and built this with the permission of the natives.”
*It is believed the Prince Henry group made an alliance with the Micmacs of Nova Scotia before coming south to New England.


Wednesday, March 29, 2017

Westford "Stone Sanctum"?

Visited an intriguing site in Westford, MA this weekend with Scott Wolter and his wife Janet. The site is comprised of a series of white rocks arranged in a specific pattern that appears to be ceremonial. The arrangement looks like a dandelion after it has turned white, with a stem (in this case 8 white rocks arranged in a row) leading to an orb (in this case a circle of white rocks). In the center of the circle is a large white boulder. The arrangement is oriented west to east, in the traditional layout of a Christian church (assuming the path to be the nave, the circle to be the apse, and boulder to be an altar). The arrangement is normally under water, but is visible now due to last summer's drought. The site has a number of features which make me think it is ceremonial: the orientation, the use of white rocks, its proximity to water, the church-like layout, and the use of 8 steps (8 being a sacred number to many groups). It is also close to where we think the Prince Henry Sinclair group would have traveled before climbing Prospect Hill to the Westford Knight site. Thanks to Wayne Wagner for calling this to my attention. He heard about this from Cori and Bill Ryan. Photo credits: Cori Ryan, GoogleEarth.

UPDATE 4/24/17: After bringing several Native American tribal elders to view the site, we now believe it may be a "women's circle" where women gathered monthly (they may have waded out in the shallow water to do so). If so, the site would likely predate the late 1600s, after which few Native Americans lived in Westford. The layout--a pathway leading to a circle--may represent the birth canal and womb, with the alter in the center perhaps representing the child. This would be similar to other Goddess fertility sites around the world which also use the "stick and ball" or "balloon" design to symbolize the birth canal and womb.

Wednesday, March 15, 2017

America's Stonehenge Revisited

I originally posted this discussion a few years ago, focusing on the fascinating summer solstice sunrise alignment connecting America's Stonehenge (North Salem, NH) to Stonehenge England and then to the Phoenician homeland of Lebanon. I now want to update: It turns out that the alignment continues, as we theorized, to the ancient Phoenician homeland at a site located in the Golan Heights in what is now Israel. The site is called Israeli Stonehenge and is also known as Gilgal Refaim, the Wheel of the Giants. Its various "spokes" and "wheels," mark the celestial and astronomical events of the year. It is, like its namesakes, essentially, a stone calendar.
The mound in the center is fifteen feet tall, and the outer circle is over 500 feet in diameter. Incredibly, the site aligns to within 1/6 of 1 degree along the summer solstice sunrise line connecting America's Stonehenge to Stonehenge England. Not bad for sites separated by 6,000 miles!
I think what happened was that the ancient seafaring Phoenicians, being sun worshipers, built these ceremonial sites as they sailed westward to trade for tin (in southern England near Stonehenge) and copper (northern New England and Great Lakes regions), both of which were needed in vast quantities during the Bronze Age. The summer solstice was the most important day of the year to sun worshipers (being the sunniest), which is why the sites are aligned on the sunrise of that day. How did they do it? The same way they navigated the oceans: through their knowledge of astronomy.
[Original post reprinted below]
Happy to see H2's "America Unearthed" show did such a good job with the America's Stonehenge episode that aired this weekend (and will re-air over the coming weeks). Some of the episodes have been disappointing, but this one did a good job summarizing the evidence and describing why many people feel the ancient Phoenicians build the New Hampshire site, perhaps 3500 years ago. The son of the owners of the site, Kelsey Stone, has done some fascinating work showing how the summer solstice sunrise illumination links the site to Stonehenge in England and also to the Phoenician homeland of what is modern Lebanon. Standing at the center of the NH site, and looking directly into the summer solstice sunrise, one's line of sight would pass directly through one of the arches at Stonehenge, England. Attached are images showing this phenomenom, courtesy of Kelsey Stone (on the top image, the bottom line is simply the east-west line; the upper line is the summer solstice sunrise line). The line of sight, extended, eventually would also pass through Lebanon, presumably where some ancient Phoenician temple or monument would have been erected.

Thursday, April 28, 2016

Update on Tucson Lead Artifacts

Those who read my novel Powdered Gold will recall the controversy over the Tucson lead artifacts discovered in the 1920s. Scott Wolter and other geologists have examined them and concluded that, based on the geology, the artifacts are at least many hundreds of years old, validating their 8th Century AD dating. But some Latin scholars have analyzed the inscriptions and concluded they were lifted from modern Latin textbooks by a hoaxer. Recently an expert on medieval Latin studied the artifacts and has declared them to be genuine:

In my mind, this pretty much resolves this issue, making these artifacts some of the most important pieces of evidence of early exploration of America.

Tuesday, November 10, 2015

Masons, Druids and Washington, DC

The American patriot Thomas Paine, author of Common Sense, wrote also about the Freemasons, though less famously.  Freemasonry, he stated, “is derived and is the remains of the religion of the ancient Druids, who, like the magi of Persia and the priests of Heliopolis in Egypt, were priests of the sun.”  I had never before associated Masonry with the Druids, but the idea of the Masons, Druids and Egyptian priests being connected through sun worship makes sense to anyone who has toured the Masonic House of the Temple in Washington, D.C.—the building is full of Egyptian iconography and symbolism, highlighted by the pair of giant marble sphinxes flanking the structure’s entryway.


If the Freemasons truly did derive from the Druids as Paine argued, and if the Masons truly did design Washington, D.C. in such a way as to imbed their secrets within that design as so many modern observers have suggested, then shouldn’t there be evidence of Druidic influence in the city’s layout?  It turns out there is, in a stunningly obvious way.

Pennsylvania Avenue and Maryland Avenue radiate out from the Capital building in a northwesterly (Pennsylvania) and southwesterly (Maryland) direction.  The angle in which they do is approximately 20.5 degrees off of due west, a seemingly random angle.  Or perhaps not.  Importantly, each avenue connects the Capital building with a crucial D.C. landmark—Pennsylvania Avenue leads to the White House, and Maryland Avenue to the Jefferson Memorial.  So, again, is there anything significant about the placement of these roads/structures?  (Obviously there is, else I would not have bothered with this blog post.)

As readers may know, the sun-worshipping Druids marked and observed not only the equinoxes and solstices, but the cross-quarter days as well.  These cross-quarter days fall between an equinox and solstice, and occur in early February, May, August and November.  In many ways they are the most accurate way to mark the seasons—the height of summer occurs in early August and the height of winter in early February.  For the pastoral communities of the British Islands that were home to the Druids, these days also mark important events in the calendar.  For example, Samhain in early November was the traditional time to slaughter livestock for consumption during the winter months, while Beltane in early May was the time to drive cattle to their summer grazing lands.

So do the Freemasons observe these cross-quarter days?  If Thomas Paine is correct, logic would argue that modern Masons should follow the practices of their Druidic antecedents.  As with many things with the Masons, the answer to this inquiry is hidden in plain sight. Pictured below is a Masonic Royal Arch banner, commemorating the Royal Arch degree—I will not get into this too deep other than to say the Royal Arch degree’s importance is reflected in the fact that it is the only degree in Freemasonry which is a prerequisite to becoming a Master Mason.


Note the four symbols portrayed on the four crests that surround the central Royal Arch degree insignia:  Clockwise from upper left we have an eagle, a lion, a man and a bull.  Those familiar with astrology will recognize the signs of Scorpio (the eagle being a symbol, along with the scorpion, of Scorpio), Leo, Aquarius (man being the water carrier) and Taurus.  These signs, in turn, directly correlate to the four cross-quarter days:  Imbolc occurs at the height of Aquarius (that is, at the precise midpoint of Aquarius’ Zodiacal cycle), Beltane at the height of Taurus, Lunasa at the pinnacle of Leo, and Samhain at the apex of Scorpio.  So it appears Paine was correct in his assertion.  Masonic ritual marks and celebrates the cross-quarter days just as the Druids did before them.

So, back to Washington, D.C. and our seemingly-random layout of the White House and Jefferson Memorial vis-à-vis the Capital building.  Savvy readers will not be surprised to learn that on Beltane the sun sets on the horizon directly above the White House along Pennsylvania Avenue (White House pasted into image):


Similarly, on Imbolc the sun sets down Maryland Avenue atop the Jefferson Memorial (also pasted into image):


In conclusion, it seems that Paine was correct in his assessment that Freemasonry derived from the religion of the ancient Druids, as evidenced by the Masonic-inspired Druidic solar alignments prevalent in the layout of Washington, D.C.

Monday, January 26, 2015

America Unearthed, Hooked X & Westford Knight

In anticipation of next Saturday's season finale of H2's "America Unearthed" series, starring forensic geologist Scott Wolter, I wanted to post some images of and information regarding the so-called Hooked X (or Forked X) mark found this past summer on the Westford Knight carving. This Hooked X mark will be prominently featured in the finale.

Here are some images:

[orientation is off 90 degrees on this last image]
Arrow showing location of Hooked X mark on rubbing of Westford Knight

Most readers, I think, will be able to make out the Hooked X mark as well as round dots marks equally spaced both to the left and to the right of the mark These dots may serve as word separators. The location of the mark is consistent with a "signature" of the carver, located near the bottom corner of the carving.

No doubt that critics will attempt to downplay the significance of this mark and/or argue it is a hoax of some kind. Regarding the possibility of hoax, I will note that the likelihood is negligible for two reasons:

1.  The weathering of the Hooked X mark (see below).

2.  The fact that the mark appears on a plaster cast made of the Knight many years before Scott Wolter began his research on the Kensington Rune Stone and first identified (and popularized) the Hooked X rune as an important clue to the Rune Stone's origin.

I also want to observe that, in reading some of the reviews of "America Unearthed," some skeptics seem unwilling to concede that even a single artifact analyzed on the show evidences even the possibility of pre-Columbian exploration of America. Let me state that another way: In these critics' minds, there is a 100% chance that 100% of the artifacts are fakes/hoaxes. I'm sorry, but that is not the world I live in. The world I live in is gray, where parts of history are unknown. This is not to say that every AU episode makes a compelling case, but the idea that every episode and every artifact is 100% flawed is untenable to me and, quite frankly, makes the critics look close-minded and agenda-driven.

I am happy to answer any questions, but I will not allow posts that are in my judgment uncivil.

Finally, here is an earlier post from 10/7/14 that I have copied and pasted in this post for easy reference:


In late June I posted some images of what appear to be a Hooked X or Forked X on the Westford Knight carving. On August 31 researcher Jerry Lutgen, along with geologist Scott Wolter, came to Westford to photograph and examine the mark.  I won't try to describe Jerry's work other than to say he uses digital imaging to create 3D images and models of the carvings he studies.  Here is a color image of the Hooked X mark:

As Jerry explained it to me, because the rock is not a flat surface, the thing to focus on here is the comparative depth of the lines in question, not their absolute depth. What we are looking for is a consistency in the relative depth of the lines in question (this consistency shows a man-made origin rather than a naturally occurring one). 

Looking at the X (you may need to zoom in), the "hook," and the 2 "word separator" dots on either side, we see that the upper left stem, the lower left stem, the upper right stem, the "hook" stem and the left dot all contain light blue "punch" marks within the green-colored surface. The lower right stem and the right dot are solid green amid the yellowish/orange-colored surface.

Looking at the color chart on the right of the image, we see that all the carved lines/dots in question are approximately one to one-and-a-half color gradations in depth--in other words, carved or punched at a relatively similar depth.  Again, this points to a man-made origin.

We can next compare the Hooked X mark with the sword portion of the carving:

This sword area is a relatively flatter surface, and we see that the punch marks are mostly light green amid a yellowish surface (around the pommel) or dark green amid a light green surface (near the cross-guard). Again, we have a carved/punched depth equal to approximately one color gradation.

Scott Wolter has not reviewed all the data yet, but he and I had a long telephone conversation on September 26 and his preliminary conclusion is that it is 85-90% likely that the mark is indeed a man-made Hooked X carved at a time contemporaneous to the sword carving. As I understand it (and Scott has not reviewed this post), this conclusion is based on the following factors:

1.  The orientation of the mark is perfectly consistent with the orientation of the rest of the carving.

2.  The "word separator" dots are equally spaced on either side of the mark and positioned similarly to separator dots in other runic carvings.

3.  The carving depth is consistent within the Hooked X itself and also consistent as between the Hooked X and the sword (see above).

4.  The weathering profile within the Hooked X mark is consistent with the weathering within the sword carving.

5.  It is extremely unlikely that a Hooked X mark and a pair of separator dots, all appearing in the proper orientation, would somehow naturally form on the face of the Westford Knight carving.

When I asked Scott why this only added up to 85-90% certainty, he laughed and said that his only hesitation was that finding a Hooked X on the Westford Knight carving was simply "too good to be true."